What is Tire?

The tire is designed to hold compressed air, mounted on a rim and makes contact with the ground, even though it may seem as if it is a simple, uniform structure from the outside, with a composite, high-tech process with rubber, manufactured, is one of the most important parts of the vehicle.

Tire History

Since the invention of the pneumatic tire, great advances have been made in tire technology.

1888: Development of the first air-holding tire.

1898: Development of the first car tire.

1910: Development of the first tire using cord fabric.

1937: Invention of steel cord tire.

1946: Invention of steel radial tire.

1947: The invention of a tubeless tire.

1956: The spread of winter tires in Europe.

1973: Development of tires using Kevlar (aramid cord).

1973: Development of the first tire-rim system that eliminates the need for a spare wheel.

1979: The introduction of tires with low rolling resistance, reducing fuel consumption.

Mergers in the world, the search for new technologies and markets, the idea of ​​dominating the larger market and the wishes of the vehicle manufacturers, accelerated the developments in tire technology especially after 1980s.

These developments after 1980 can be summarized as follows:

Reduced fuel consumption and exhaust gases due to reduced tire rolling resistance.

Increased traction and steering on dry, wet and snowy surfaces.

Reduction of the tire weight and the total weight of the vehicle.

Reduction of tire noise.

Development of temporarily used small spare wheel tires.

Recovery of used tires.

Development of run-on tires.

Development of tire pressure monitoring warning and control systems.

Increasing tire life.

Improving the suspension ability of the tire.

Increasing tire load carrying capacity.

Use of biodegradable materials in rubber.


Basic Tasks of Tire

A - Carrying the load of the vehicle:

The tire carries a certain load on it, maintaining the required high pressure air. In order for the tire to perform this task in the designed geometry, it is very important to inflate it with air at the appropriate pressure.

B - To transmit the forces that cause the vehicle to move and stop:

In order for the torque generated by the engine and transmitted by the drivetrain to the wheel to become the driving force of the vehicle, the vehicle tires must be able to generate sufficient frictional force on the ground surface. Similarly, the braking system is able to stop the vehicle by means of the frictional force between the tire and the ground surface. The frictional forces required to do this are created by the specially designed pattern of the tire and the properties of the mixture on the ground. (Different parts of the tire are made from mixtures of different properties.)

C - Change the direction of the vehicle and keep it fixed:

With driver control, it prevents the vehicle from traveling on a straight line at high speed, as well as the necessary lateral frictional forces between the tire and the road surface during slalom-like maneuvers and cornering, preventing slipping and skidding.

D - Providing ride comfort by reducing the vibrations caused by the surface surface:

The tire helps the vehicle's shock absorber system in doing this. The tire must be designed in a balance so that it can perform this task without neglecting other tasks. For example, a tire which is desired to be very comfortable may show weakness in cornering and vice versa.

Tire Structure

The tire is mainly composed of four zones. 1-Back, 2-Shoulder, 3-Cheek, 4- Heel. The area where the tread meets the sidewall is called the shoulder area of ​​the tire. Depending on the structure of the tire, there are belts or impact layers under the tread. We will use a simple analogy to describe the structure of the tire. The analogy between tire engineering and suspension bridge engineering (anology) will also help explain the structural classification in the future. Almost everyone in Istanbul has seen either itself or a picture of the suspension bridges connecting the two continents. The platform where the vehicles pass over can be compared to the structure consisting of tread, belt and impact layers. Just as in the structure that can carry the weight of the palatform vehicles on the bridge, the structure consisting of the tread belt and impact layer is durable enough to balance the load of our car by means of compressed air in the tire. However, the platform on the tire is much more flexible than the bridge. In this anology, the force generated by the weight of the vehicles on the bridge is similar to the force generated by the compressed air in the tire. Let's look at the components of this "platform":


It is the rubber part where the tire touches the ground. It is made up of channels and blocks that provide hold, traction, water throwing, cooling. It is placed on the belts during production. La